Metal Forming

What is metal forming?

Metal forming is one of the most widely used manufacturing processes in the world. During the Forming process, the metal is plastically deformed by a force that exceeds the material yield strength where strain hardening occurs.

Steel billets forming
Steel billets forming

To be able to successfully form, the material should have a low yield strength and high ductility, while strain rate and lubrication affect the performance too. Increasing the temperature reduces yield strength and increases ductility to make it easier to deform hence some types of forming are performed hot.





Metal forming types

Forming processes tend to be categorised by different types of force  and can be grouped into the following categories;

  1. Compressive stress forming
  2. Tensile stress forming
  3. Combine stress
  4. Bending
  5. Shearing.

Further, these can be subdivided into various forms depending on how the force is applied.

Rolling, where the flat metal is deformed using compression force by passing through two rotating rollers.

Forging deforms the metal between two dies, where the die shapes are imparted onto the raw metal piece. This can be either a hot or cold working process

Extrusion, where the material is compressive deformation by forcing the work through a die orifice, where the work takes on the shape of the die opening

Drawing – Reduction of the diameter of a round wire or bar by pulling it through a die opening

Sheet metal working, cold deformation of the sheet metal via a punch and die assembly. Sometimes alternatively referred to as press working due to the press machines used

Beeley, P. (2001). Foundry Technology (Second ed.). Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.

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