Sensors are used to convert physical inputs or attributes into electrical signals. A device that turns electrical impulses into physical events or characteristics is known as an actuator. It receives input from the system and outputs to the environment.
Directed Energy Deposition (DED) forms 3D objects by melting material as it is being deposited using focused thermal energy such as laser, electron beam or plasma arc. Both the energy source and the material feed nozzle are manipulated using a gantry system or robotic arm.